**Author**: Ernesto Sandoval

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**ISBN:**OCLC:951984834

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Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) is a quantum mechanical approach for the dynamical properties of electrons in matter. It's widely used in (bio)chemistry and physics to calculate molecular excitation energies and optical properties of materials. This is the first graduate-level text on the formal framework and applications of TDDFT.

The year 2004 was a remarkable one for the growing ?eld of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Not only did we celebrate the 40th - niversary of the Hohenberg-Kohn paper, which had laid the foundation for ground-state density functional theory (DFT), but it was also the 20th - niversary of the work by Runge and Gross, establishing a ?rm footing for the time-dependent theory. Because the ?eld has grown to such prominence, and has spread to so many areas of science (from materials to biochemistry), we feel that a volume dedicated to TDDFT is most timely. TDDFT is based on a set of ideas and theorems quite distinct from those governingground-stateDFT, butemployingsimilar techniques.Itisfarmore than just applying ground-state DFT to time-dependent problems, as it - volves its own exact theorems and new and di?erent density functionals. Presently, themostpopularapplicationistheextractionofelectronicexcit- state properties, especially transition frequencies. By applying TDDFT after thegroundstateofamoleculehasbeenfound, wecanexploreandunderstand the complexity of its spectrum, thus providing much more information about the species. TDDFT has a especially strong impact in the photochemistry of biological molecules, where the molecules are too large to be handled by t- ditional quantum chemical methods, and are too complex to be understood with simple empirical frontier orbital theo

The year 2004 was a remarkable one for the growing ?eld of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Not only did we celebrate the 40th - niversary of the Hohenberg-Kohn paper, which had laid the foundation for ground-state density functional theory (DFT), but it was also the 20th - niversary of the work by Runge and Gross, establishing a ?rm footing for the time-dependent theory. Because the ?eld has grown to such prominence, and has spread to so many areas of science (from materials to biochemistry), we feel that a volume dedicated to TDDFT is most timely. TDDFT is based on a set of ideas and theorems quite distinct from those governingground-stateDFT, butemployingsimilar techniques.Itisfarmore than just applying ground-state DFT to time-dependent problems, as it - volves its own exact theorems and new and di?erent density functionals. Presently, themostpopularapplicationistheextractionofelectronicexcit- state properties, especially transition frequencies. By applying TDDFT after thegroundstateofamoleculehasbeenfound, wecanexploreandunderstand the complexity of its spectrum, thus providing much more information about the species. TDDFT has a especially strong impact in the photochemistry of biological molecules, where the molecules are too large to be handled by t- ditional quantum chemical methods, and are too complex to be understood with simple empirical frontier orbital theo

The first Nato Advanced Studies Institute entirely devoted to density functional theory was held in Portugal in September 1983. The proceedings of this School, publis hed in early 1985, is still used as a standard reference covering the basic development of the theory and applications in atomic, molecular, solid state and nuclear physics. Ho wever, astonishing progress has been achieved in the intervening years: The foundations of the theory have been extended to cover excited states and time dependent problems more fully, density functional theory of classical liquids and superconducting systems has been addressed and extensions to relativistic, that is, field theoretical systems, as well as a more thorough discussion of magnetic field problems have been presented. In addition, new functionals have been devised, for instance under the heading of ge neralised gradient expansions, and the number of applications in the traditional fields has steadily increased, in particular in chemistry. Applications in new fields, as for instance the structure of atomic clusters and the marriage of density functional theory with molecular dynamics and simulated annealing, have provided additional impetus to the field of density functional theory.

There have been many significant advances in time-dependent density functional theory over recent years, both in enlightening the fundamental theoretical basis of the theory, as well as in computational algorithms and applications. This book, as successor to the highly successful volume Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (Lect. Notes Phys. 706, 2006) brings together for the first time all recent developments in a systematic and coherent way. First, a thorough pedagogical presentation of the fundamental theory is given, clarifying aspects of the original proofs and theorems, as well as presenting fresh developments that extend the theory into new realms—such as alternative proofs of the original Runge-Gross theorem, open quantum systems, and dispersion forces to name but a few. Next, all of the basic concepts are introduced sequentially and building in complexity, eventually reaching the level of open problems of interest. Contemporary applications of the theory are discussed, from real-time coupled-electron-ion dynamics, to excited-state dynamics and molecular transport. Last but not least, the authors introduce and review recent advances in computational implementation, including massively parallel architectures and graphical processing units. Special care has been taken in editing this volume as a multi-author textbook, following a coherent line of thought, and making all the relevant connections between chapters and concepts consistent throughout. As such it will prove to be the text of reference in this field, both for beginners as well as expert researchers and lecturers teaching advanced quantum mechanical methods to model complex physical systems, from molecules to nanostructures, from biocomplexes to surfaces, solids and liquids. From the reviews of LNP 706: “This is a well structured text, with a common set of notations and a single comprehensive and up-to-date list of references, rather than just a compilation of research articles. Because of its clear organization, the book can be used by novices (basic knowledge of ground-state DFT is assumed) and experienced users of TD-DFT, as well as developers in the field.” (Anna I. Krylov, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 129 (21), 2007) “This book is a treasure of knowledge and I highly recommend it. Although it is a compilation of chapters written by many different leading researchers involved in development and application of TDDFT, the contributors have taken great care to make sure the book is pedagogically sound and the chapters complement each other [...]. It is highly accessible to any graduate student of chemistry or physics with a solid grounding in many-particle quantum mechanics, wishing to understand both the fundamental theory as well as the exponentially growing number of applications. [...] In any case, no matter what your background is, it is a must-read and an excellent reference to have on your shelf.” Amazon.com, October 15, 2008, David Tempel (Cambridge, MA)

The present dissertation studies a joint theoretical-experimental investigation of the dynamical structure factor of wide-gap insulators, using lithium-fluoride as a prototype. Ground-state (energy bands and electron densities) was calculated using Linear Augmented Plane Wave (LAPW) method and local density approximation (LDA) of density functional theory (DFT). Ab-initio principal is applied to obtain a realistic description of the band structure, which is central to the current research in the condensed matter physics. Dynamical response function has been evaluated within time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) with an adiabatic approximation (TDLDA), for the exchange-correlation kernel. Our TDLDA spectra contain one adjustable parameter: a "scissors-operator" shift of conduction bands of LDA electronic structure. This parameter is determined in view of the line-shape of the Non-resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering (NIXS) cross section for q= 6Å−1 along (111) direction. All other spectra are calculated "ab-initio." The important interplay between band structure and electron dynamics is emphasized within our results. The picture of excitations offers an alternative view to previous investigations involving an approximate solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation coupled with a more limited range of NIXS data.